Botulinum Toxin as Nonsurgical Method of Treatment of Functional and Aesthetic Disorders of the Periocular Area
str. 36 – 40
Autor: Mariusz Kęcik 1,2
1 Katedra i Klinika Okulistyki Warszawskiego Uniwersytetu Medycznego
Kierownik: prof. dr hab. n. med. Dariusz Kęcik
2 ProFeelMed w Warszawie
Kierownik: dr n. med. Mariusz Kęcik
Summary: Botulinum toxin as a nonsurgical method of functional and esthetic correction of periocular area. t first the botulinum toxin has been regarded as a dangerous poison. Sommer was first to extract the botulinum toxin as a powder and used it to induce muscular paralysis in laboratory animals. Later, Schanz obtained crystalline form of the toxin and Vermon Brooks discovered its mechanism of action on the acetylocholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction.
The botulinum toxin was first employed in medical applications in the XX century in treating strabismus and reducing muscular spasticity. It was at that time that clinicians observed that it also had the property of smoothing out wrinkles. In this paper, the author will present botulinum toxin applications in treating muscular spasticity of the middle and upper face as well as its aesthetic employment in periocular area including practical aspects of administration, dosing and adverse effects and complications.