Zastosowanie nanotechnologii w okulistyce
Application of Nanotechnology in Ophthalmology
Adrian Smędowski2, Anna Piotrowska-Gwóźdź2, Karolina Mikuś2, Agnieszka Piotrowska2, Agnieszka Fitowska2, Marta Kaczmarek2, Dorota Pojda-Wilczek1, Ewa Mrukwa-Kominek1
1 Klinika Okulistyki Katedry Okulistyki Śląskiego Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Katowicach
Kierownik: prof. dr hab. n. med. Wanda Romaniuk
2 Koło naukowe Studenckiego Towarzystwa Naukowego przy Katedrze i Klinice Okulistyki Śląskiego Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Katowicach
Opiekun Towarzystwa: dr n. med. Dorota Pojda-Wilczek
Summary: Nanotechnology is a field of science dedicated to building structures and devices at the atomic scale. Their diameters vary from one to 100 nanometers. Nanoscience and, precisely speaking, molecular engineering enabled the usage of nanomaterials in various fields such as electronics, optics, laser technology, architecture, transport, agriculture, food industry, cosmetology and medicine.
Nanotechnology has initiated revolutionary progress in medicine, especially in ophthalmology, in which it has improved the methods of diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment of pathologies of various ocular structures.
In corneal defects electrospun nanofibres scaffolds provided optimal conditions for the growth of limbal stem cells, what resulted in corneal regeneration. Another type of nanoscaffolds, namely self-assembling peptide scaffolds, are used in the renewal of the optic nerve.
Using molecular nanosensors to register the damages made to the optic nerve and retina by reactive oxygen species could help in early detection of neuro- and retinopathies, their prevention and in mitigation of already existing lesions.
It is a difficult task to provide a constant monitoring of the intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma. However, specific nanosensors could solve above problem, resulting in better control of glaucoma and many other chronic eye diseases.
Considering the fact that the eye consists of many different layers which act as diffusion barriers, colloidal nanocarriers could facilitate the penetration and, at the same time, the effect of various medicines. Similarly, nanovectors could be used in genetic therapy of many diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa.
However, the greatest invention of nanotechnology would be an “intelligent” retinal implant.
Słowa kluczowe: nanotechnologia, okulistyka, inżynieria molekularna, nanopodłoża.
Keywords: nanotechnology, ophthalmology, molecular engineering, nanoscaffolds.