Przyczyny niepełnosprawności wzrokowej członków Polskiego Związku Niewidomych w okręgu zachodniopomorskim
The Causes of Visual Impairment Among Members of the National Association of the Blind of Poland in the West Pomeranian Division
Katarzyna Kubasik-Kładna, Monika Dzięciołowska, Tomasz Pabin, Danuta Karczewicz
Katedra i Klinika Okulistyki Pomorskiego Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Szczecinie
Kierownik: dr hab. n. med. Wojciech Lubiński, prof. nadzw. PUM, FEBO
Summary: Purpose: The focus of the work has been laid on the causes of visual impairment in members of the National Association of the Blind
of Poland (NAB) in the West Pomeranian division.
Patient and Methods: The membership files – as of March 2011 – of 1706 members of NAB served as the main source for the study.The age, gender, time of disability’s occurrence and severity of the impairment were examined. The individuals studied were divided into those that had not come of age (below the age of eighteen) and adults. These two groups were represented by 199 and 1507 individuals, respectively. Having analyzed the causes ofvision disability, the group of adults was further subdivided according to the stage at which the disability became evident.
Results and Conclusions: In the underage group 30.6% showed a mild vision loss whereas 69.9% had severe vision disability. In case of 187 children, i.e. 93.9%, the disability was inborn. Among the most common causes of the disability in the underage group were refraction deficiency with resulting complications, ROP and neuropathy. In the adult group the most frequent causes of the disability were deficiency in refraction and resulting complications, glaucoma and neuropathy. In case of 580 adults, i.e. 39.85%, the vision disability occurred before the age of eighteen; in case of 199 adults, i.e. 15.1%, it occurred between the age of eighteen and forty; and in case of 531 adults, i.e. 40.53%, the disability manifested itself over the age of forty. With respect to the stage of life when the disability occurred the most frequent cause of the vision disability in the below-eighteen age group was refraction deficiency with resulting complications, neuropathy and glaucoma. In the group of patients between eighteen and forty years of age the most common cause of the disability were injury, neuropathy and glaucoma. The main cause of disability among patients over the age of forty was glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and retinal detachment.
Słowa kluczowe: niepełnosprawność wzrokowa, niepełnosprawność umiarkowana, niepełnosprawność znaczna, Polski Związek Niewidomych.
Keywords: visual impairment, mild vision disability, severe vision disability, National Association of the Blind of Poland.