Rola stresu oksydacyjnego w przebiegu zwyrodnienia plamki związanego z wiekiem
The Role of Oxidative Stress in Age-related Macular Degeneration
Daniel Wysokiński1, Janusz Błasiak1, Jerzy Szaflik2, Jacek P. Szaflik2
1 Katedra Genetyki Molekularnej Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego
Kierownik: prof. dr hab. Janusz Błasiak
2 Katedra i Klinika Okulistyki II Wydziału Lekarskiego Warszawskiego Uniwersytetu Medycznego
Samodzielny Publiczny Kliniczny Szpital Okulistyczny w Warszawie
Kierownik: prof. dr hab. n. med. Jerzy Szaflik
Summary: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is responsible for a majority of blindness incidents among elderly individuals in developed countries. Due to expected increase of elderlies participation in the population, and constantly growing number of AMD cases, the disease is currently in scope of scientific interest. On the cellular level AMD is caused by the degeneration of retinal epithelium and photoreceptors leading to central vision impairment. AMD may progress to one of two advanced forms – dry (atrophic) or wet (exudative), with differ in clinical features and prognosis. The nature of AMD is complex and still poorly understood. Many risk factors has been identified, including advanced age and cigarette smoking as the most relevant. Contribution of genetic factors in AMD is also well defined. The nature of AMD pathogenesis comprises the involvement of many mechanisms and interactions. Oxidative stress as an effect of elevated reactive oxygen species generation is thought to be involved in many pathologies. Several lines of evidence indicate that oxidative stress may significantly contribute to the degeneration of retinal tissues, and is considered as one of the key players of AMD development. The toxic effect of reactive oxygen species in biology is clear. It may cause damage to diverse cellular constituencies as cell membranes, proteins or nucleic acids, disturbing cell function or even causing cell death. Oxidative stress in the retina may interact with additional pathogenic processes as inflammation, angiogenesis or the interference of iron homeostasis that are believed to play a role in AMD.
Słowa kluczowe: AMD, stres oksydacyjny, wolne rodniki, antyoksydanty, mitochondria, żelazo.
Keywords: AMD, oxidative stress, free radicals, antioxidants, mitochondria, iron.