Jak rozpoznawać jaskrę w oku krótkowzrocznym?
How to Diagnose Glaucoma in Myopic Eye?
Hanna Zając-Pytrus, Ewa Migdał, Marta Misiuk-Hojło
Katedra i Klinika Okulistyki Akademii Medycznej we Wrocławiu Kierownik: prof. ndzw. dr hab. n. med. Marta Misiuk-Hojło
Summary: The high myopia is one of the main risk factors for chronic open angle glaucoma. The predisposing changes to glaucoma damage in high myopic eyes are associated with excessive eyeball stretching. These changes also cause problems in glaucoma diagnostics techniques. Evaluation of the perineural atrophy size is not useful in glaucoma diagnosis or in its monitoring. Neuro-retinal rim fragments the most susceptible to glaucomatous damage in highly myopic eyes are localized in its infero-temporal sectors. Some high myopic discs might not exhibit localized but diffused glaucoma damage. Some high myopic discs can be small, with pathologic morphology, which makes early glaucoma detection completely impossible. In the visual field of myopic eyes there can be defects caused by myopic chorioretinal atrophic foci. The borders of such defects are sharp and they usually cross the horizontal meridian. The glaucoma field defects are not so clearly defined and do not cross the horizontal meridian. It is important that people with refraction error over 8 D should be examined for glaucoma damage and they should be treated for glaucoma until the possibility of glaucoma damage has been excluded. The safe maximum IOP level in high myopic eyes should be considered 18 mmHg and in cases of higher IOP levels anti-glaucoma therapy should be introduced.
Słowa kluczowe: jaskra, wysoka krótkowzroczność, ciśnienie wewnątrzgałkowe, uszkodzenie tarczy n. II.
Keywords: glaucoma, high myopia, intraocular pressure, optic disc damage.