Wydanie 1/2008

Epidemiologia jaskry - dane światowe

Worldwide Data on Glaucoma Epidemiology

Jerzy Szaflik, Anna Zaleska-Żmijewska, Anna M. Ambroziak

Katedra i Klinika Okulistyki II Wydziału Lekarskiego Warszawskiego Uniwersytetu Medycznego Samodzielny Publiczny Kliniczny Szpital Okulistyczny w Warszawie Kierownik: prof. dr hab. n. med. Jerzy Szaflik


Summary: Despite extensive research and new treatments glaucoma remains a major cause of blindness in the developing and developed world. An optic neuropathy characterized by optic nerve head cupping, with corresponding nerve fiber loss and visual field (VF) defects is the definition of primary open angle glaucoma nowadays generally accepted. There is no consensus about cutoff points for normal disc measurements. An elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is considered to be a risk factor for POAG, as well as the presence of a first-degree relative with glaucoma. Population-based studies of glaucoma have found that prevalence increases with age. However, people older than 75 years are poorly represented in population-based studies of glaucoma prevalence. Black race individuals have more severe glaucoma compared with Caucasian individuals, with a significantly larger C/D ratio, a higher IOP, a greater mean deviation on the VF, and more bilateral disease. The rate of blindness in black race patients with glaucoma is estimated as 5.3% vs 1.3% in whites.

Keywords: population - based study of glaucoma, prevalence of glaucoma, blindness, intraocular pressure, visual field defects, C/D ratio


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