Pathogenesis of Myopia
Katarzyna Kubasik-Kładna, Ewelina Lachowicz, Danuta Karczewicz
Katedra i Klinika Okulistyki Pomorskiego Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Szczecinie
Kierownik: prof. dr hab. n. med. Danuta Karczewicz
Summary: Myopia is a refractive error which constitute not only a medical problem but also a large social and economic problem. On one hand, a high refractive error reduces the development and functioning in everyday life, use of entertainment and some people may withdraw from social life. Young people with amblyopia and myopia may also have problems with learning, choice of profession and then finding a job. On the other hand, refractive error is associated with the costs of correction, the surgical treatment of complications and in the longer term with problems of visual disability. There are several types of myopia. Genetic and environmental factors may lead to development of this error. Myopia can be inherited as a single-or polygenic, autosomal dominant or recessive, or related to gender. In addition, it was found that myopia occurs in many genetically determined syndromes. The error occurs more frequently in referred ethnic groups-the yellow race, among the urban population, educated people and premature babies. The relationship of myopia and gender still remains disputed. It was found that the incidence of myopia and its volume increases with age. The most important environmental factors is near visual work: writing, reading, working on a computer, poor hygiene for nearwork, as well as nutrition, urbanization and industrial development. Pathogenesis of myopia is not completely understood. Definitive procedure in the prevention of myopia progression is not prepared.
Słowa kluczowe: krótkowzroczność, patogeneza, czynniki ryzyka.
Keywords: myopia, pathogenesis, risk factors.